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  • Individual | MATRIx

    Individual Beliefs About Health Services Beliefs About Health Professionals Beliefs About Mental Illness Deciding to Seek Help Fear of Judgement Practical Difficulties Social and Family Life Demographic & Mental Health Factors Back to Conceptual Framework

  • References | MATRIx

    References Atif N, Lovell K, Husain N, Sikander S, Patel V, Rahman A. Barefoot therapists: barriers and facilitators to delivering maternal mental health care through peer volunteers in Pakistan: a qualitative study. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2016;10:24. Mar 15. doi:10.1186/s13033-016-0055-9 ​ Atif N, Nazir H, Zafar S, Chaudhri R, Atiq M, Mullany LC, Rowther AA, Malik A, Surkan PJ and Rahman A (2020) Development of a Psychological Intervention to Address Anxiety During Pregnancy in a Low-Income Country. Front. Psychiatry 10:927. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00927 ​ Bina R, Barak A, Posmontier B, Glasser S, Cinamon T. Social workers' perceptions of barriers to interpersonal therapy implementation for treating postpartum depression in a primary care setting in Israel. Health Soc Care Community. 2018;26(1):e75-e84. doi:10.1111/hsc.12479 ​ Bina R. Predictors of postpartum depression service use: A theory-informed, integrative systematic review. Women Birth. 2020;33(1):e24-e32. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2019.01.006 ​ Boyd RC, Mogul M, Newman D, & Coyne JC. Screening and referral for postpartum depression among low-income women: a qualitative perspective from community health workers. Depression Research and Treatment. 2011. ​ Button S, Thornton A, Lee S, Shakespeare J, Ayers S. Seeking help for perinatal psychological distress: a meta-synthesis of women's experiences. Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(663):e692-e699. doi:10.3399/bjgp17X692549 ​ Byatt N, Biebel K, Debordes-Jackson G, et al. Community mental health provider reluctance to provide pharmacotherapy may be a barrier to addressing perinatal depression: a preliminary study. Psychiatr Q. 2013;84(2):169-174. doi:10.1007/s11126-012-9236-0 ​ Chartier MJ, Attawar D, Volk JS, Cooper M, Quddus F, McCarthy JA. Postpartum Mental Health Promotion: Perspectives from Mothers and Home Visitors. Public Health Nurs. 2015;32(6):671-679. doi:10.1111/phn.12205 ​ Dennis CL, Chung-Lee L. Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review. Birth. 2006;33(4):323-331. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00130.x ​ Doering JJ, Maletta K, Laszewski A, Wichman CL, Hammel J. Needs and challenges of home visitors conducting perinatal depression screening. Infant Ment Health J. 2017;38(4):523-535. doi:10.1002/imhj.21656 ​ Ganann R, Sword W, Newbold KB, Thabane L, Armour L, Kint B. Provider Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Accessible Service Provision for Immigrant Women With Postpartum Depression: A Qualitative Study. Can J Nurs Res. 2019;51(3):191-201. doi:10.1177/0844562119852868 ​ Hadfield H, Wittkowski A. Women's Experiences of Seeking and Receiving Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2017;62(6):723-736. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12669 ​ Hadfield, H., Glendenning, S., Bee, P. et al. Psychological Therapy for Postnatal Depression in UK Primary Care Mental Health Services: A Qualitative Investigation Using Framework Analysis. J Child Fam Stud 28, 3519–3532 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01535-0 ​ Hansotte E, Payne SI, Babich SM. Positive postpartum depression screening practices and subsequent mental health treatment for low-income women in Western countries: a systematic literature review. Public Health Rev. 2017;38:3. Published 2017 Jan 31. doi:10.1186/s40985-017-0050-y ​ Jallo N, Salyer J, Ruiz RJ, French E. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2015;29(4):249-254. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2015.04.004 ​ Jones CC, Jomeen J, Hayter M. The impact of peer support in the context of perinatal mental illness: a meta-ethnography. Midwifery. 2014;30(5):491-498. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2013.08.003 ​ Kim JJ, La Porte LM, Adams MG, Gordon TE, Kuendig JM, Silver RK. Obstetric care provider engagement in a perinatal depression screening program. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009;12(3):167-172. doi:10.1007/s00737-009-0057-6 ​ Lucas G, Olander EK, Ayers S et al. No straight lines – young women’s perceptions of their mental health and wellbeing during and after pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-ethnography. BMC Women's Health 19, 152 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0848-5 ​ Masood Y, Lovell K, Lunat F, et al. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women. BMC Womens Health. 2015;15:109. Published 2015 Nov 25. doi:10.1186/s12905-015-0263-5 ​ Megnin-Viggars O, Symington I, Howard LM, Pilling S. Experience of care for mental health problems in the antenatal or postnatal period for women in the UK: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18(6):745-759. doi:10.1007/s00737-015-0548-6 ​ Morrell CJ, Sutcliffe P, Booth A, et al. A systematic review, evidence synthesis and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies evaluating the clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness, safety and acceptability of interventions to prevent postnatal depression. Health Technol Assess. 2016;20(37):1-414. doi:10.3310/hta20370 ​ Myors KA, Johnson M, Cleary M, Schmied V. Engaging women at risk for poor perinatal mental health outcomes: a mixed-methods study. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2015;24(3):241-252. doi:10.1111/inm.12109 ​ Nithianandan, N., Gibson-Helm, M., McBride, J. et al. Factors affecting implementation of perinatal mental health screening in women of refugee background. Implementation Sci 11, 150 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-016-0515-2 ​ Noonan, M., Doody, O., O’Regan, A. et al. Irish general practitioners' view of perinatal mental health in general practice: a qualitative study. BMC Fam Pract 19, 196 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-018-0884-5 ​ Pugh NE, Hadjistavropoulos HD, Hampton AJD, Bowen A, Williams J. Client experiences of guided internet cognitive behavior therapy for postpartum depression: a qualitative study. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18(2):209-219. doi:10.1007/s00737-014-0449-0 ​ Rowan C, McCourt C, & Bick D. (2010). Provision of perinatal mental health services in two English strategic health authorities: views and perspectives of the multi-professional team. Evidence Based Midwifery, 8(3), 98-106. ​ Smith, M. S., Lawrence, V., Sadler, E., & Easter, A. (2019). Barriers to accessing mental health services for women with perinatal mental illness: systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies in the UK. BMJ open, 9(1), e024803. ​ Schmied V, Black E, Naidoo N, Dahlen HG, Liamputtong P (2017) Migrant women’s experiences, meanings and ways of dealing with postnatal depression: A meta-ethnographic study. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0172385. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172385 ​ Shakespeare J, Blake F, & Garcia J. A qualitative study of the acceptability of routine screening of postnatal women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of General Practice. 2003; 53(493), 614-619. ​ Sorsa MA, Kylmä J, Bondas TE. Contemplating Help-Seeking in Perinatal Psychological Distress-A Meta-Ethnography. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5226. doi:10.3390/ijerph18105226 ​ Staneva AA, Bogossian F, & Wittkowski A. The experience of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Midwifery. 2015; 31(6), 563-573. ​ Watson H, Harrop D, Walton E, Young A, Soltani H. A systematic review of ethnic minority women's experiences of perinatal mental health conditions and services in Europe. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210587. Published 2019 Jan 29. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210587 ​ Willey S, Gibson-Helm M, Finch T, East C, Khan N, Boyd L, & Boyle J. Implementing innovative evidence-based perinatal mental health screening for refugee women. Women and Birth. 2018; 31, S8. ​ Williams CJ, Turner KM, Burns A, Evans J, Bennert K. Midwives and women's views on using UK recommended depression case finding questions in antenatal care. Midwifery. 2016;35:39-46. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2016.01.015 ​ Young CA, Burnett H, Ballinger A, et al. Embedded Maternal Mental Health Care in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic: A Qualitative Exploration of Mothers' Experiences. Acad Pediatr. 2019;19(8):934-941. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2019.08.004 ​

  • Recommendations | MATRIx

    Recommendations Recommendations for policy​ Many elements of the conceptual frameworks can be modified by policy makers and government activity (e.g. workforce provision, healthcare capacity, training etc). Therefore, we recommend policy makers review the frameworks and take comprehensive, strategic and evidence-based efforts to ensure there is an effective system of PMH care. ​ ​ Funding is required to ensure high quality care provision. Therefore, the provision of a comprehensively researched and adequate budget is needed so that all healthcare needs for that financial year can be met. Funding needs to be adequate for service needs and easily accessible. Funding structures may need to be revised depending on the needs of the community in which the service is delivered (e.g. affordable health insurance where free healthcare is not available). ​ ​ The reduction of health inequalities is needed. It is therefore advisable that policy is put in place: (i) improve equality between the sexes/genders by ensuring equal rights for women and men; (ii) in terms of ethnicity, for example changes at the legislative level are needed to protect those who have migrated to a different country from being penalised for accessing healthcare; and (iii) in terms of income, a fair and easily accessible welfare system is needed to prevent health inequalities based on deprivation.​ ​ To see this as in infographic click here Recommendations for practice (service managers) In terms of care, it is recommended that care is co-produced with women and is personalised and culturally appropriate. Increasing the flexibility and accessibility of services should be done through offering home visits and, where this is not possible, providing out-of-hours appointments located in an area with good transport links and an accessible building to allow for pushchairs. In addition, service managers could consider the provision of virtual consultations using web-based platforms, but women should be given the choice about whether virtual consultations are right for them.​ ​ Culturally sensitive care and increased accessibility of care is required for women who are unable to, or have difficulty speaking the country’s official language. This can be done via pictorial aids, the purchase of products such as Language Line, or through collaboration with translation agencies.​ ​ Technology can be a facilitator to PMH services in terms of assessment, referral and intervention. Thus, technology systems should be co-produced with HPs and women to ensure ease of usability and integration into the workflow.​ ​ Where not already implemented, multi-disciplinary teams should be created which facilitates choice and personalised care and ensures an adequate workforce to meet women’s needs. We need to break down silo working and encourage collaborative and joint working within and across services. Collaboration between services is needed with a focus on the identification and building of working relationships and networks with other services (e.g., Citizens Advice Bureau). Furthermore, the building of a coalition of health visitors, midwives, general practitioners, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies practitioners, psychologists and psychiatrists is needed to encourage referral and reduce the risk of women falling out of the care pathway.​ ​ HPs should be provided with high quality training that is delivered face-to-face and incorporates role play simulators where appropriate. This should include training in cultural sensitivity and cross-cultural mental health. Training time for HPs should be built into workloads and be protected.​ ​ To see this as in infographic click here​ Recommendations for practice (health professionals)​ A facilitator to perinatal mental health care was health professionals having good knowledge about perinatal mental health, services and referral pathways. Therefore, health professionals should participate in continuing professional development activities related to perinatal mental health including participating in high quality training. When in contact with women, health professional should listen to women’s concerns and take them seriously. Take the time to address their concerns and take responsibility of that woman to ensure she is referred to appropriate services. Provide assessment in a woman-centred way. Explain questions or wording that women are not clear about. Clearly discuss results with women and explain next steps.​ ​ To see this as in infographic click here Recommendations for women and families We have also designed recommendations for women and families – navigating the system, click here for this infographic.

  • Demographic and Mental Health Factors | MATRIx

    INDIVIDUAL Demographic and Mental Health Factors Certain demographic and mental health factors may impact perinatal mental health care. Ethnicity. Previous experiences of mental health services. Age. Symptoms of mental illness​. Previous diagnoses​. Ethnicity A woman’s ethnicity may influence whether she decides to consult and whether she is able to access care. There is some evidence that suggests white women are more likely than Black, Asian and Minority ethnic women to seek help and be offered perinatal mental health care​. ​ "Asian and Black women were less likely to be offered treatment than White women and health care providers were perceived to discriminate against the women on account of their ethnicity". ​ Evidence level: ​ Low ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Decision to consult, Access to treatment​. ​ Key literature: ​ Watson H, et al. 2019 Age Being older may be a facilitator to perinatal mental health care. More research is needed.​ “…older women sought treatment more often, due to maturity and a greater awareness about how to find care”​. ​ ​Evidence level: Very low​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult. ​ ​​Key literature: ​ Hansotte E, et al. 2017 Previous experiences of mental health services Previous positive experiences of mental health services can be a facilitator, whereas previous negative experiences can be a barrier​. ​ "That is probably why a lot of black women don’t bother going to the system . . . the majority have had nightmares. So you’re thinking, “What’s the point in going back?”​​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Decision to consult, Assessment, Decision to disclose, Access to treatment, Women’s experience of treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Watson H, et al. 2019 Symptoms of mental illness​ Current symptoms of mental illness may act as a barrier to perinatal mental health care. ​ "When I was experiencing mental health issues, it was harder for me to get out, sort of on a schedule and be punctual."​ ​ ​Evidence level: Low​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult ​ ​Key literature: ​ Sorsa MA, et al. 2021 Previous diagnoses​ Having a previous diagnosis of a mental health difficulty may be a facilitator to perinatal mental health care. ​ "Furthermore, having a history of depression or anxiety and/or treatment for it was found to be associated with service use for PPD…​[postpartum depression]". ​ ​Evidence level: Very low​​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult ​ ​Key literature: ​ Bina R. 2020 Recommendations We recommend the government and policy makers provide adequate funding for all mental health services, to ensure employment of the optimal number of staff to meet individual’s needs.​ ​ We recommend high quality training to be provided to all health professionals who come into contact with people who are experiencing mental health difficulties, to ensure a high level of care is provided to all. ​ Back to Individual

  • Getting It Right First Time | MATRIx

    HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Getting it right first time It is important that health professionals take responsibility for each woman they see to help facilitate women’s journey along the care pathway. Dismissing or normalising women’s symptoms​. Focussing only on infant. Not recognising help seeking. Appearing too busy​. Tick box delivery. Dismissing or normalising women’s symptoms​ Health professionals being dismissive or normalising women’s symptoms is a barrier. "I did ask for support, but I didn’t really get any. And the health visitor’s response — ‘Well you seem like you’re doing all right’”. ​ Evidence level: ​ High ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Contact with health professionals, Decision to disclose, Referral, Access to treatment, Women’s experience of treatment​. ​ Key literature: ​ Button S, et al 2017 Not recognising help seeking Health professionals not recognising help seeking or symptoms of perinatal mental illness can be a barrier. "I purposely circled the things ’cos I’m struggling, the health visitor didn’t get back to me, which I’m really disappointed about.” ​ Evidence level: ​ Moderate ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Contact with health professionals, Assessment. Referral. ​ Key literature: ​ Button S, et al 2017 Focussing only on infant ​ Health professionals only focussing on the infant may be a barrier.​ ​ "… somebody [is] not just checking on the baby but actually sitting down with you asking, ‘how are you doing?’ ‘What can I do to help you?’ ​​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Low​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Contact with health professionals, Decision to disclose, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Megnin-Viggars O, et al. 2015 Appearing too busy​ Appearing to busy can be a barrier, whereas making time to address perinatal mental health symptoms is a facilitator​. ​ "The health visitor said something like: ‘You know, in this community we have to look after a thousand and something babies.’ And that instilled in me the feeling, like: ‘Oh, they are very busy these people, and I don’t have to be bothering them all the time’”. ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Contact with health professionals, Assessment, Decision to disclose, Access to treatment, Provision of optimal treatment, Women’s experience of treatment​ ​ ​Key literature: ​ Button S, et al 2017 Delivery of assessment Behaviours shown by health professionals during assessment can either be a barrier (i.e. carrying out assessment in a tick-box way) or a facilitator (i.e. taking a personalised approach)​. ​ "I sometimes feel that they're [assessment tools] a little bit silly so I usually sort of introduce the questions, ‘we're interested in sort of how they're feeling emotionally or how they feel about the pregnancy …’ and we just go through them. But I try to sometimes re-phrase them a little bit because, depending on who I'm talking to basically, if I'm seeing a 16 year old girl who's scared out of her wits, I've got to be careful how I ask that sort of question because it's important to find out​". ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Decision to disclose​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Williams CJ, et al. 2016 Recommendations We recommend service managers employ an adequate number of workers to ensure health professionals have enough time to address women’s needs​. ​ We recommend service managers implement perinatal mental health good practice guides. This guide provides information on symptoms of perinatal mental illness, communication skills when discussing perinatal mental illness, what to do if a woman discloses perinatal mental illness and case studies of good practice. ​ ​ We recommend health professionals participate in continuing professional development activities related to perinatal mental health including taking part in high quality training​. Back to Health Professionals

  • Health Professional's Knowledge | MATRIx

    HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Health professionals' knowledge​ Health professionals' knowledge about perinatal mental health symptoms and referral pathways can influence implementation and delivery of care, as well as whether women disclose their symptoms and access care. ​ Knowledge about perinatal mental illness​. Confidence of health professionals ​. Knowledge about referral pathways ​. Knowledge about perinatal mental illness​ Health professionals having good knowledge about perinatal mental health symptoms can be a facilitator to care, whereas a lack of knowledge can be a barrier. "’Oh I was seeing so and so but when they found out I was pregnant they discontinued my medication.’” That…happens frequently. Very frequently…their provider won’t [prescribe] because of their pregnancy."​ ​ Evidence level: ​ Moderate ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Contact with health professionals, Assessment, Access to treatment​. ​ Key literature: ​ Byatt N, et al. 2013 Confidence of health professionals ​ Related to knowledge, a health professional with high levels of confidence in addressing perinatal mental health can be a facilitator. Low confidence can be a barrier.​ ​ "Look, I feel insecure at the moment, as I have not yet had the chance to try [this therapy with a client], and I have to practice…​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Referral, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Bina R, et al. 2018 Knowledge about referral pathways ​ Health professionals having good knowledge about services and referral pathways can be a facilitator to care, but lack of knowledge can be a barrier​​. ​ "The health professionals interviewed in both Trusts were not always aware of the services available in other areas of the health service and recommended the provision and circulation of named links to support more joined up working​​". ​ ​Evidence level: High ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Referral, Access to treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Rowan C, et al. 2010 Recommendations We recommend health professionals participate in continuing professional development activities related to perinatal mental health including participating in high quality training [LINK TO TRAINING RECOMMENDATION]​. ​ Service managers and policy makers could consider health professionals receiving accreditation for participating in training. Back to Health Professionals

  • Fear of Judgement | MATRIx

    INDIVIDUAL Fear of Judgement Fear of judgement from others is another barrier to women deciding to seek help or disclosing symptoms, and to implementing and delivering care successfully.​ Fear of being seen as a bad mum. Fear of social services. Fear of being seen as a bad mum The fear of being seen as a bad mum can act as a barrier to perinatal mental health care​. ​ "With my health visitor, I try not to let too much out, because then she won’t think I am a bad mum​​". ​ Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected : Deciding to consult, Deciding to disclose. ​ Key literature: ​ Button S, et al. 2017 Fear of social services Fear of social services involvement can act as a barrier to perinatal mental health care​. ​ "I didn’t want anyone’s help to be honest after I had [my previous child]. I was so frightened that people would think I couldn’t cope and take her off me​."​ ​ ​Evidence level: High​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult, Deciding to disclose. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Megnin-Viggars O, et al. 2015 Recommendations We recommend the development an NHS Mental Health Campaign focused on stigma reduction of perinatal mental illness. ​ ​ We recommend the development of information aimed at increasing awareness of perinatal mental illness such as (1) infographics/leaflets disseminated through maternity services, primary care, third sector organisations (e.g. NCT), and antenatal classes (2) short animations & videos disseminated via social media on:​ Symptoms of different PMI​. How they are common, and when to seek help​. Causes​. How to access professional support. ​ Services available​. Maternity professionals and their role in PMH care​. Myth busters on social services: For example, an analysis of reasons child protection plans were put in place in England in 2019 shows the most common reason was abuse or neglect (54.4%). Parent’s disability or illness only counted for 2.5% of referrals. ​ ​ Back to Individual

  • Deciding to Seek Help | MATRIx

    INDIVIDUAL Deciding to seek help There are two steps to women deciding to seek help. These are recognising that something is wrong and having the knowledge and understanding to know where to go to seek help.​ Supported to recognise something was wrong. Not knowing what services are available. ​ Supported to recognise something was wrong When women are supported to recognise something was wrong, this acts as a facilitator to women perinatal mental health care. ​ ​ "That’s when I thought, you know: “Something is really wrong here, I need to go to the doctors if I’m thinking about killing myself.”​" ​ Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult. ​ Key literature: ​ Button S, et al. 2017 Not knowing what services are available Women not knowing what services are available and where to go to seek help may be a barrier to perinatal mental health care. ​ ". . .you don’t know where to go, what to do, who to trust…". ​ ​Evidence level: Low​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Megnin-Viggars O, et al. 2015 Recommendations We recommend the development of information aimed at increasing awareness of perinatal mental health illness such as (1) infographics/leaflets disseminated through maternity services, primary care, third sector organisations (e.g. NCT), and antenatal classes (2) short animations & videos disseminated via social media on:​ Symptoms of different perinatal mental illnesses​. The best way to cope with symptoms and when to seek help​. ​ We recommend this information is developed by individual trusts, or third-party organisations (e.g., the NCT) in collaboration with the NIHR Applied Research Collaboration (ARC) Perinatal Mental Health Themes, The Perinatal Mental Health Network Scotland, the National Managed Clinical Network, and the Royal Colleges. We have provided some guidance for women navigating an imperfect system here. Back to Individual

  • Organisational Aspects | MATRIx

    SERVICE MANAGERS Organisational aspects​ How the organisation and services are designed can impact implementation of perinatal mental health services, and women’s access to care.​ Co-location of services​. Adequate workforce provision​. Collaborative working across services​. Assessment and referral processes​. Collaborative working within services. Training. Supervision. Co-location of services​ Location of the service including co-location of different services within the same building may be a facilitator to care​. "Another community resource that women mentioned as an enabler for seeking help …was having a comprehensive medical care system, offered at well-baby clinics, which met their own and their baby’s physical, psychological and emotional needs."​ ​ Evidence level: ​Low ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult, Access to treatment, Provision of optimal treatment. ​ Key literature: ​ Bina R, et al. 2018 Collaborative working across services​ Collaborative working across services can be a facilitator to care, whereas no collaborative working across services is a barrier​. ​ "I think [referrals] are dependent on the nurses … Some nurses refer more than others. It all boils down to the amount of interaction the nurse has with the social worker and how much she/he believes in the ability of the social worker."​​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected : Assessment, Referral, Access to treatment, Provision of optimal treatment, Women’s experience of treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Bina R, et al. 2018 Collaborative working within services Collaborative working within services can be a facilitator to care, whereas no collaborative working within services is a barrier​. ​ "Midwives had concerns that not all women were referred appropriately, but with support from one another, this situation was rectified: ‘if someone finds that there’s something that hasn’t been enacted properly, then they would always do something about it’". ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected : Assessment, Referral, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Willey S, et al. 2018 Adequate workforce provision​ Employment of an adequate workforce to meet women’s needs and to ensure health professional’s have an achievable workload is a facilitator to care, whereas insufficient workforce is a barrier​. ​ "I’d like to do a lot of things, but time dictates that there’s only so much one can do".​ ​ ​Evidence level: High​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment , Referral, Access to treatment, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Kim JJ, et al. 2009 Assessment and referral processes​ Clear assessment and referral processes with an organisation can be a facilitator to care, unclear processes can be barrier​. ​ "We have to send the form; the patient has to ring to say did you get the form and I am now confirming that I am going to go and then they get an appointment, for someone who is very distressed and you are asking them to jump through hoops​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Referral. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Noonan M, et al. 2018 Training Provision of high quality training for all professionals who come into contact with perinatal women is a facilitator to care. No training, or poor training is a barrier​. ​ "I’ve never received any formal training in this area. I do not feel adequately trained to detect postpartum depression.​"​ ​ ​Evidence level: High​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: First contact with health professionals, Assessment, Referral, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Kim JJ, et al. 2009 Supervision ​Supervision for health professionals may be a facilitator. ​ "...Discussing it with the supervisor gave us the clarity and also suggestions if we need to do it differently in our next session." ​ ​Evidence level: Very low ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Atif N, et al. 2019 Recommendations We recommend service managers ensure an adequate workforce to meet women’s needs by utilising a workforce planning tool and considering if there are a sufficient number of people in each of the key roles (psychiatrist, pharmacist, nurse, psychologist, occupational therapist, support staff, admin, peer support). ​ ​ We recommend service managers develop clear & easily accessible guidelines on where to refer women to depending on their need. We encourage the development of one referral form that can be uploaded and amended, discussed at multidisciplinary team meetings (this is a process used at the Perinatal Mental Health Service at South West London and St Georges Mental Health NHS Trust). ​ ​ Encouragement of a workspace that involves co-location, a culture of team working, sharing knowledge, approachability.​ Provision of training for all people working in a health service. Consider the use of simulation training, such as the one used by Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust provide Perinatal Mental Health Simulation Training on the identification and management of common perinatal mental health problems using actors and ‘real-life’ settings.​ Training should:​ Be ring fenced/time protected​. Provide accreditation, matched to competencies and appropriate to level of involvement​. Be expected for all health services staff who have contact with perinatal women​. Be interactive and provided by a knowledgeable person or network​. Where relevant be face-to-face​. Training should cover:​ Symptoms of PNMI - not just depression​. How to talk about PMH, what questions to ask, language use​. How and where to refer to​. Diverse family structures​. Vulnerable groups​. Health inequalities​. Lived experiences​. Trauma informed care​. Cross cultural presentations of mental illness​. How to engage women from diverse backgrounds (see The Motherhood Group, who provide training related to engaging with Black women). ​ Service managers and policy makers could consider health professionals receiving accreditation for participating in Perinatal Mental Health Simulation Training. Back to Service Manager

  • Appropriate and Timely Services | MATRIx

    COMMISSIONERS Appropriate and timely services There needs to be an adequate amount of services that women can be referred on to. These services need to meet women’s needs and be offered in a timely manner. A lack of appropriate and timely services. Guidance for providing services. A lack of appropriate and timely services A lack of appropriate and timely services is a barrier​ to care​. ​ "I could see that [the EPDS score] was high and you make your referrals, and it was months out before she could go . . . she had to almost take her life to get seen right away. And that’s terrible that it has to come to that. I think that’s the biggest struggle.​"​ ​ Evidence level: ​High ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Decision to consult, Assessment, Referral, Access to treatment, Provision of optimal treatment​. ​ Key literature: ​ Doering JJ, et al. 2017 Guidance for providing services According to Moreton et al. 2021 to provide services that meet the needs of the population, commissioners must:​ Have a good knowledge of population and the healthcare need in question. Therefore, training on perinatal mental health should be mandatory for at least one commissioner in each Primary Care Network, Integrated Care System or Health Board (see recommended training [add link])​ Engage with people with lived experience - services should be co-produced with those who have lived experience Have access to high quality evidence e.g. the development of perinatal mental health information guide : ​ Symptoms of PNMI​ Impact on women and their families​ Barriers to women getting care they need and how to overcome these​ Effective care and treatment​ Examples of good practice​ Recommendations Provision of adequate financial resources to ensure service managers can: ​ Recruit a multi-disciplinary team with enough staff to meet service users’ needs​. Provide high-quality, time protected staff training to all staff​. Provide continuity of carer​. Provide resources that break down language barriers such as translators or Language Line​. Provide an adequate number of appropriate services that women can be referred to in a timely manner​. Provide individualised, woman-centred care. Back to Commissioners

  • Open and Honest Communication | MATRIx

    INTERPERSONAL Open and honest communication​ Open and honest communication between women and health professionals. Open and honest communication . A lack of open and honest communication. Open and honest communication ​ Open and honest communication between women and health professionals can be a facilitator to perinatal mental health care​. "And I was so grateful, and then I just talked to her, and it was so nice to be able to talk freely with her [about the EPDS ] at the time.​"​ ​ Evidence level: ​ Moderate ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult, Assessment, Decision to disclose, Women’s experience of treatment​. ​ Key literature: ​ Shakespeare J, et al. 2003 A lack of open and honest communication ​ A lack of open and honest communication between women and health professionals can be a barrier to perinatal mental health care​. ​ "Women reported that they were given incorrect or incomplete information because staff felt that they could not communicate with them, leaving them unsure of the appropriate places and people to talk to…​​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Deciding to consult, Assessment, Decision to disclose, Women’s experience of treatment​. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Watson H, et al. 2019 Recommendations We recommend health professionals participate in continuing professional development activities related to perinatal mental health including participating in high quality training which focuses on communication skills​. ​ To ensure there are opportunities for health professionals and women to form trusting relationships and therefore encourage open and honest communication, we recommend continuity of carer across the care pathway​. Back to Interpersonal

  • Care Pathways | MATRIx

    COMMISSIONERS Care Pathways A tool used to guide health professionals and women on what their care should look like. Clear care pathways. Incomplete, confusing carer pathways​. Clear care pathways Care pathways that are comprehensive and clearly defined can be a facilitator. ​ "…those referral pathways are pretty simple if they’re clearly articulated​."​ ​ Evidence level: ​Moderate ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Referral. ​ Key literature: ​ Nithianandan N, et al. 2016 Incomplete, confusing care pathways​ Incomplete, unclear or confusing care pathways can be a barrier.​ ​ "Numerous phone calls and a large amount of paperwork are required to complete the screening and referral process​".​ ​ ​Evidence level: Moderate​ ​ ​Parts of the care pathway affected: Assessment, Referral. ​ ​Key literature: ​ Boyd RC, et al. 2011 Recommendations We recommend commissioners designing clear and comprehensive referral and care pathways. Examples of care pathways for NHS perinatal mental health services can be found on The Future NHS Platform for National Perinatal Mental Health: Maternal mental health services-> MMHS Resources-> 3. Pathways & system delivery models​. ​ We recommend commissioners design integrated care ensuring collaboration within and between services. Back to Commissioners

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